He graduated from the Blagoveshchenskoe Tank Command Red Banner School in Gorky Oblast and the Ministry of the Interior Academy of the Republic of Belarus in Minsk.
He served in the Soviet Airborne Troops, and participated in the Soviet war in Afghanistan, eventually attaining the rank of Major General. In 1990, he was elected Deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR for the Brest constituency, a post he held until 1994. He was also Secretary of the Commission of the Supreme Soviet for Questions of National Security, Defence and Crime Control.
He has been an active supporter of Alexander Lukashenko since his election in 1994.
On 5 August 1994, the day the Security Council of Belarus was created by presidential decree, he was appointed Secretary of the Security Council of Belarus.
On 10 August 1994, he was made a member of the Board of the Belarusian Ministry of Defense.
On 12 August 1994, he was made a member of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
From 16 December 1995 to 27 November 2000, he held the posts of Secretary of the Security Council of Belarus and Minister of Internal Affairs.
On 27 November 2000, he was freed from the post of Secretary of the Security Council and made Assistant to the President for National Security.
From 28 November 2000 to 29 November 2004, he was Prosecutor General of Belarus.
From 29 November 2004 to 4 January 2006, he held was Head of the Administration of the President of Belarus.
On March 20 2006, he was again appointed Secretary of the Security Council of Belarus.
Ranks and TitlesEdit
- On 6 December 1996 - Major General
- On 28 November 2000 - State Adviser of Justice, II class
- On 25 November 2004 - State Adviser of Justice, I class
- On 29 November 2004 - Higher Class of the Employee of Government Apparatus
- Order of Merit for the Fatherland, II degree (2003)
- Order of Merit for the Fatherland (1998)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour 
- Order of the Red Star
- Medal of Valour
Viktor Sheiman has been criticized for using his position as Prosecutor General to close down by its action Court decision closed the main oppositional newspaper “freedom”. Political opposition groups and international human rights organizations accuse Sheiman of organizing "death squads" responsible for killing members of organized criminal groups, opposition politicians and Russian Channel One cameraman Dzmitry Zavadski. In 2006, he was placed on a list of over 40 members of the Belarusian government banned from entering the European Union and the United States for allegedly participating in the manipulation of the results of the presidential election; the ban was lifted in 2008.
Viktor Sheiman is married, and has a son and a daughter.